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Background Data

Prevalence and Relative Risk Estimates Used in Calculators

Prostate Cancer:

Category

Prevalence

Relative Risk (Ref)

Any FH (Black): 5.5% (Whitmore) 2.6 (Whitmore)
Any FH (White): 7.4% (Whitmore) 1.9 (Whitmore)
Any FH (Asian): 3.6% (Whitmore) 2.7(Whitmore)
Father (US White, UK, Aust) Not applicable 2.50 (Johns)
Brother (US White, UK, Aust) Not applicable 3.40 (Johns)
Father & Brother (US White, UK, Aust) Not applicable 3.50 (Johns)

 

Breast Cancer:

Category

Prevalence

Relative Risk (Ref)

Any Family History (FH) (<60) 10.4% (X) 2.4 (Beral)
Any Family History (FH) (>=60) 11.2% (X) 1.9 (?Beral)
  User aged >=50 User age less than 50
Mother (<50) 1.7 2.5 (Pharoah)
Mother (>=50) 1.7 1.6 (Pharoah)
Sister (<50) 1.8 3.3(Pharoah)
Sister (>=50) 1.9 3.0
Daughter (any age) 1.8 1.8
Mother and Sister (any age) 3.6 3.6
One 1st degree and one 2nd degree relative
(any age)
2.5 3.1
One 2nd degree relative (any age) 1.6 1.7
Two 2nd degree relatives (any age) 2.2 2.4
  HRT Type (E-only) HRT (E+P)
< 1 year 1.0 1.45
1-4 years 1.25 1.74
5-9 years 1.32 2.17
10+ years 1.45 2.31

The prevalence of HRT use was based on age and duration and type for Australia (ref: Coombes, BMJ refe) and USA (Coombes California paper)